MonkeyPox Virus - Comment
1. Is MonkeyPox the next pandemic ? Dr. Suresh Kumar Medical Director , Lok Nayak Hospital Director Professor & Head of Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi.
2. Monkeypox • Monkeypox virus is an enveloped double‐stranded DNA virus with a genome size of around 190 kb. • Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease that occurs primarily in tropical rainforest areas of Central and West Africa and is occasionally exported to other regions.
4. Confirmed human monkeypox cases Africa, 1970-2021
5. Confirmed human monkeypox cases Worldwide,1970-2021
6. Monkeypox transmission – an overview
7. Monkeypox – modes of transmission • Unprotected contact with: • respiratory droplets • lesion material • body fluids • contaminated materials and surfaces The virus can enter through: • respiratory tract • mucous membranes (eyes and mouth) • broken skin (e.g. animal bites
8. Disease progression I – Incubation • Duration: 5-21 days • No symptoms • Virus present in bloodstream (viremia) at the end of the incubation period
9. Disease progression II – Febrile stage • 1-4 days • Fever + other symptoms: swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), headache, chills, sore throat, malaise, fatigue • Virus in the blood • Small lesions in the mouth (enanthem) appear towards the end
10. Disease progression III – Rash stage
11. Disease progression III – Rash stage • Virus may be in the blood early in this stage • Virus is present in skin lesions • Antibodies are produced and become detectable
12. Disease progression IV – Recovery • The patient has recovered • Specific antibodies are present in the blood • Scars may remain
13. Monkeypox symptoms – an overview
14. Monkeypox and other common rash illnesses
15. Clinical Symptoms • Monkeypox typically presents clinically with fever, rash and swollen lymph nodes and may lead to a range of medical complications. • Monkeypox is usually a self-limited disease with the symptoms lasting from 2 to 4 weeks. • Severe cases can occur. • In recent times, the case fatality ratio has been around 3-6%. • Monkeypox is transmitted to humans through close contact with an infected person or animal, or with material contaminated with the virus. • Monkeypox virus is transmitted from one person to another by close contact with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets and contaminated materials such as bedding.
16. Monkeypox: Clinical syndromes and possible treatment options
17. Prevention • Raising awareness of risk factors and educating people about the measures they can take to reduce exposure to the virus is the main prevention strategy for monkeypox. • Scientific studies are now underway to assess the feasibility and appropriateness of vaccination for the prevention and control of monkeypox. • Some countries have, or are developing, policies to offer vaccine to persons who may be at risk such as laboratory personnel, rapid response teams and health workers.
18. Treatment • At this time, there are no specific treatments available for monkeypox infection, but monkeypox outbreaks can be controlled. • Smallpox vaccine, cidofovir, ST-246, and vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) can be used to control a monkeypox outbreak. • CDC guidance was developed using the best available information about the benefits and risks of smallpox vaccination and drug use for the prevention and management of monkeypox and other orthopoxvirus infections.
19. Monkeypox and Smallpox Vaccine • One vaccine, JYNNEOSTM (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex), has been licensed in the United States to prevent monkeypox and smallpox. • Because monkeypox virus is closely related to the virus that causes smallpox, smallpox vaccine can also protect people from getting monkeypox. • Past data from Africa suggests that smallpox vaccine is at least 85% effective in preventing monkeypox. • The effectiveness of JYNNEOSTM against monkeypox was concluded from a clinical study on the immunogenicity of JYNNEOS and efficacy data from animal studies. • Experts also believe that vaccination after a monkeypox exposure may help prevent the disease or make it less severe.
20. THANK YOU
|Posted by : peter88||Post date : 2022-08-03 16:59|
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